Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Caged Bird Controversy Essays - I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings

The Caged Bird Controversy The Caged Bird Controversy The novel I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is the life story of Maya Angelou as she struggles through life in the South. Published in 1969, the novel has received critical acclaim since 1970 and spent three years as a number one best seller on the New York Times Best Seller List. (Caged Bird Essay) Although this book has a best seller, it was the ninth most frequently challenged book in American high schools (Caged Bird Essay) and has been a censorship target for years. Many school libraries have banned I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, because numerous parents believe that the book is vulgar, poor literature and that it is inappropriate for use in public schools for young people of any age. Others believe that I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings might do what parents fear most ? raise important issues while leaving the young reader no avenue to discover his or her relationship to those ideas. What do people mean by ?vulgar The story consists of Angelou's experiences when she was growing up which includes graphic scenarios. For example, when she described her rape by her mothers boyfriend at the age of eight. In Southlake Texas high schools, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings was banned because of the ?pornographic description? of her rape. (Caged Bird Essay) Other schools have chosen not to ban the book by just deleting the rape chapters. The use of language in the scene of Angelou's rape is hardly explicit, yet it does deal with a sensitive issue and evoke a strong emotional response. Angelou's thoughts of homosexuality became another issue and in any case, a book that discusses homosexuality is presumed controversial. As she begins puberty, confusion sets in, and the possibility of homosexuality scares her. (Caged Bird Essay) Angelou was not exactly sure what a lesbian was, but she felt that her low voice, masculine gait convinced her that she was one and later on in life she dealt with this ?confusion.? To figure out if she was a lesbian or not, she asked a fellow classmate if he wanted to have ?sexual intercourse? with her to ensure herself that she was heterosexual. This action of hers resulted in her pregnancy, which brings up another issue: Premarital sex. As a pregnant sixteen-year-old, Angelou saw nothing very wrong with her actions. I Why the Caged Bird Sings also encourages social problems that our society fights. In the following quotation, Angelou talks about joy derived from a pregnancy as an unwed sixteen year old. ?For the next two weeks, I whirled around the city, taking vitamin shots and pills, buying clothes for the baby, and except for the rare moments alone, enjoying the imminent blessed event.' The last message we want to put across to sexually curious teenagers is that a teenage pregnancy can bring happiness! ?Author Unknown The pornographic content and premarital sex do not compare to the racism which is the number one issue of the book and is the main reason why this book has been so controversial. There is no reason to believe that the novel is in its poignant portrayal of race relations. (Learning to Live) This explains why the story has been most controversial in the South, where racial tension was historically the worst and where the novel is particularity set. The obvious and subtle effects of racism on a young Angelou help explain the controversial factor of the book. In the book described her mixture feelings towards oppression as a child. She felt horrible when she hear the whites saying derogatory comments towards blacks, like when a doctor said, ?My policy is that I'd rather stick my hand down a dog's mouth than a niggers.?(I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings) Comments like these made her feel anger towards her community, and often Angelou often wondered about how it would have been like if she woke up in the white world, with blond hair and blues eyes and shudder the nightmare of being black: Angelou paints a picture of some of the negative choice's: white America choosing to oppress groups of people; choosing lynch law over justice; choosing intimidation over honor. She

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Rock Star and Politician free essay sample

At first glance, Gigs Pops performances appear erratic by his impulsive movements and gesture. However, upon further investigation of Swigs performance there lies a much deeper meaning. In this paper, I will examine Swigs Search and Destroy and Greedy Awful People, which can represent his early and later career, to demonstrate that his highly-energize performance and lyrics depict his political views from his personal experience, including his dissatisfaction with capitalism, and his feelings toward war.Thus, he was able to influence a enervation of artists, such as Henry Rollins in Black Flag, to state their political views. Gigs Pops anti-war view came from his personal experience with the Detroit Riot (1967). According to Pops biography on Oxford Music, he was born in west of Detroit to an English father (Waller). The stubborn old generation, who supported the total separation between the races, was the dominant group over the minority who supported the integration before 1 967 in Detroit. We will write a custom essay sample on Rock Star and Politician or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The inequity between races created potential uneasy atmosphere in the city where both races were dissatisfied with each other. Benjamin D. Singer claims that the origins of urban unrest in Detroit were rooted in a multitude of political, economic, and social unequal factors between black and white people. The riot began on July 23, 1 967 and in these 5 days of rioting 43 people died, 1189 people were injured and over 7000 people had been arrested (Singers). People poured into any business section, looted the stores and burned them.While on Henry Rollins show in 2007, Pop recalled that in 1 967 he formed the Stooges with other band members and held successful concerts with other bands, such as the MAC. However, while holding these concerts there was always a chance of getting shot at any second during the performance. The rioters in the city put every citizen into potential danger. Pop recalled that he could still remember the scenes vividly that many Of the buildings were on fire when he walked on the street, the sky were illuminated by the fire, rioters ran on streets and rolled cars and buildings were ruthlessly destroyed.He even joked on the show that the hole created by shell on the ground was so big that he tried to dig out the dust and build a studio for free. Gigs Pop and the Stooges were in Detroit in hat heavy time and the riot inspired pop deeply that he even wrote the song Panic in Detroit in memory of this tragedy. Panic in Detroit attests that the Detroit Riot is where Gigs pops anti-war view comes from. Pop was born in the new generation, which were open to make some changes about the racial issues and wars, and that was why he formed the Stooges to convey their pol itical views. After the World War II, the government strengthened the education about anti-war and wars catastrophic consequences, but nothing would had been a better lesson than the Detroit Riot to teach Gigs Pop the pain of riot and war cause he witnessed the city burning down. David Bowie wrote the song Panic in Detroit, released in 1 973, and it was based on friend Gigs Pops description of the revolutionaries he had known as a youth (Waller). The lyrics of the song were written in a third persons view, who went crazy during the riot and created chaos in the city.The lines of Panic in Detroit are evidence Of how pop memorized Detroit Riot as a chaotic and disaster that the person in the song screamed and ran to smash his favorite slot machine, and jumped the silent cars that slept at traffic jam. As the person ho witnessed this catastrophe, Gigs Pop did not want similar events, such as wars and riots, to happen again. As discussed previously, the earlier generation was stubborn about the racial issues that most white people preferred total separation. However, the percentage of people, who supported the integration, rose to 55% from 24% three years after the riot (Singers). Pop was in a new generation, which could make some changes by adapting new philosophy, and he had seen the progress. Gigs Pop believed that he could also use his music to influence the generation by telling them his opinions. As a result, the performances of Pop and the Stooges and lines of their song were composed of political views. Gigs Pops song Search and Destroy can exemplify one of his political views, anti-war. The Vietnam War started on November 1, 1955 and ended on April 30, 1975. In 1973, the war gradually came to an end, indicated by President Onions announcement of a halt to all U.S. Offensive action against the North on 15 January (Vietnamese). In the same year, the Stooges released their third album Raw Power, which included the song Search and Destroy. David Sesames The Vietnam War and American Music corded Gigs Pops conversation with a media that he pulled the title from a column heading in a Time article about the Vietnam War (124). The lines of this song demonstrated Gigs Pops desiring of ending the Vietnam War. The person in the song claims that, Im a street walking cheetah who searches and destroys.From the first glance, people might consider the person a proud solider who enjoyed killing. However, he also confesses that he is a worlds forgotten boy, and he needs somebody goat save his soul. These two lines indicate the persons helplessness during the war and he wants the AR end so that he can go home. Lyrics of the song also imply that soldiers unwillingness to fight against others and killed their enemies. Although on the opposite sides of the war, the person in the song as an American soldier calls his enemy baby/ and honey, and even gives them warning to look out, cause Im using technology.Even though soldiers do not want to fight, the war is cruel and will not give them sympathy: when the solider is warming his enemies about the high-tech weapons, the enemies will still strike me blind and penetrate my mind. The song reveals the cruelness of wars and oldies dilemma that do not want to fight and being killed. Pops anti-war theme did not change throughout his career. On 6 March, 2007, the Stooges had a reunion after 33 years and released their fourth album The Weirdness (Waller). Though the band broke up for decades, the theme of their songs and their rage about political issues did not change, but this time their dissatisfaction was towards the new President George W. Bush. During president Bush eight years term of service, he announced the War On Terror, including the war in Afghanistan launched in 2001 and the war in Iraq that launched on 2003. As a result, Pop firmly opposed the Bush administration, and his political views were revealed by an interview with Henry Rollins in 2007 after the reunion of the Stooges.Rollins claimed Gigs Pop as his personal hero in the public, and thus made an animation to illustrate his idols political view. Henry Rollins played the animation during the second half of the show, and in the animation Wall-Mart was the symbol of Bushs government, where people received food, cultures, and entertainment. Rollins could not buy the New Yorker, the Times magazine, or the Washington Post from the seller, but instead he could only arche s violence related commodities, such as Guns and Ammo that came with a free gun with purchase of the magazine. Also, shirts motifs were violent things, such as a burning cross and a military one with tank, a helicopter and a young soldier (Henry Rollins Show). Gigs Pops successfully conveyed his political views to fans, such as Henry Rollins. Another part of the political issues that Pop focused on was capitalism, and this part also came from his personal experience. Pop came from a normal Michigan family that his father was a former high school English teacher and baseball coach (Waller). His family did not really enjoy the welfare and advantages of capitalism.Rich people were getting richer by taking advantages of the lower and the middle class, and that was another idea that Henry Rollins animation tried to illustrate: a employer of Wall-Mart fainted during the work, but the manager did not care at all and kept shouting at another employee with angry facial expression (Henry Rollins Show). From a macroscopic perspective, punk rock was raised by the failure Of capitalism. Kenneth J. Binds states punk arose in England during 1976 in the midst of a rebel recession that appeared to many English youth as the failure of the British socio-economic system. (2) The depression of economics and fail ere of capitalism were the breeding ground of punk rock that there were many new born bands who called themselves punk pessimistically viewed the future. For instance, theres no future, the Sex Pistols Johnny Rotten sang in early 1976 (3). Pop held negative views about capitalism as well, writing multiple songs that criticize it, especially his later career in the album The Weirdness, including AT M, Greedy Awful People, and She Took My Money. Greedy Awful People is one of Pops typical anti- capitalism songs.In the song, Pop viciously curses the rich and expresses that he hates the upper class. The person in the song first confesses that he used to like my neighborhood and it really made me feel good. These two lines of the song imply that the person in the song does not start to hate his neighbors until he knows that they are rich people and can brought a church and steeple. From that he knows that they are rich, and he starts to call his neighbors greedy awful people. He hates the awful cars that his neighbors re driving, rich and Shiite bars that they go to, and channels they bought on TV.Also, he considers his rich neighbors stupid that they always clap on the wrong beat and theyre wearing loafers on their feet. Also, after cursing the rich, the person in the song cannot hide his sadness that Im sad and lonely baby because l cant live among my class. His feeling of hate is raised in inequity and he does not want to bow to the rich because of his proud that he still emphasizes that Im the upper class. The person who is telling the story in Greedy Awful People is a metaphor of Gigs Pop himself that he is to supportive of capitalism because of the inequity coming from it.On the other hand, some people would argue that if Gigs Pop wanted to convey his political views, why would he has chosen to perform in such a aberrant way, jumping around the stage, throwing up into the audiences? If the political aspect Of Pops music could easily get lost in translation, why he did not choose a more settle way to perform his music so that audiences could easier to perceive his messages? The answers to these questions were the development of television as the embodiment of mainstream show business and the rising of MAT. K. J.Donnelly, in Tracking British television: pop music as stock soundtrack to the small screen, points out that popular music always has been important for television, and since the sass, pop and rock music have gradually asserted themselves on a medium that never fully embraced their possibilities. (3) As a newborn medium, television provided musicians a stage to demonstrate their talents. Whereas, this stage was different from previous stages, such as radio and tape, which focus more on the voice; audiences of television concentrated more on the visual impact. In Music video in its contexts: popular music and post-modernism in the sass, Will Straw concludes the characters Of music video that the music video had made image more important than the experience of music itself. (2) Also, Donnelly states something similar that television is dominated less by developmental drama, such as in films, but more by momentary dramatic The visual image that musicians showed in the music video tended to be more important than the lyrics itself, and singers or bands need to do something dramatic and special in order to impress their audiences.As a result, Gigs Pop chose to demonstrate his political opinions not only through his lyrics but also emphasizing them through his erratic and strange body languages. Pops rage during his performances were his expression of rage towards war and capitalism. His actions of never wearing any clothes when performing, shaking his head oddly, shouting out all the lyrics, and running into the crowds were dramatic enough to attract a large number of audiences. There is evidence that Gigs Pop is not intrinsically crazy, and he is only being expressive during performances to deliver his ideas. Ups interview on the Tom Snyder Show in 1980 testifies that he knew what he was doing, and he explained the reasoning behind his behavior. At the very beginning of the show, Gigs Pop came down the stage and sat down with Snyder, breathing quite heavily. He tried to calm down by drinking water, but audiences were used to his regular performance, and labeled his every movement crazy because of inertial thinking. They laughed at Pop for about two minutes. However, Pop did not act crazily as the audiences expected.Instead, he answered every question from Snyder logically and philosophically. The first time when Pop claimed that his performance appeared to be painful to some people, but in reality his performances were intrusive, audiences still laughed because they thought that this was simply a crazy person saying something without thinking. However, the second time when Pop said it he had calmed down from the performance and was breathing normally. He told the audience one more time that his music was about expressing himself, and expressing the truth.The audiences did not laugh at him this time because they knew that Gigs Pop was telling the truth as a normal person, as normal as everyone else. During the show, he explained that it was very understandable that people could not calm down immediately after dancing and singing like he did, and he told everybody that he could talk quietly and logically by his actions later. He even apologized for his early action of throwing up into the audiences in 1973: I had problems, and please forgive me for my problems previously, you know. Pop wished that people could forgive him for his previous problem. In the second half of the show, audiences started to give Pop cheering and clapping instead of laughing at him at the very beginning. Gigs Pop testified him as a normal arson and earned audiences respect. Even though the political aspect of Pops songs tend to get lost during translation, his ideas have been successfully displayed, as stated previously, to his fans, such as Henry Rollins, indicating that there were people who received Pops messages, and some of them tried to further propagate the political messages.There were astonishing similarities between Henry Rollins and his idol Gigs Pop: during Rollins performance when he was the lead vocalist in Black Flag, a hardcore punk rock band, he also frequently did not wear any clothes, shouted with rage, and had very strong visual impact awards audiences (Oxford Music). Rollins also had the same political views of anti-war and anti-capitalism as pop. In Henry Rollins 2012 Tour Capitalism, he criticized unregulated capitalism and claimed that in the capitalist world there are a few winners and a whole lots of losers (Henry Rollins Show).From Rolling As a result, Pops political views are not only limited to himself but have been spread by groups of punk musicians. Gigs Pop tries to demonstrate his political views of anti-war and anti-capitalism through his music, such as Search and Destroy and Greedy Awful People. Both parts of his political views are from his personal experiences, including his experience in Detroit Riot and being exploited by capitalism beneficiaries. As a result, he chose to form the Stooges and used his expressive music to tell the truth and convey his political views to his audiences.Some of the musicians, who received and agreed with Pops political views, created their own punk music and further spread the same political ideas. Although the political aspect gets lost in the translation, his music contains the truth and appears to be exaggerated and erratic because of the rising of television and MAT in the ass. Though most people cannot understand Pop and consider him crazy, he still occasionally roves that he is a normal human being and his music contains a deeper meaning. Work Cited Hebrides, Dick. The meaning of style.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Agency problems and its solutions Essays

Agency problems and its solutions Essays Agency problems and its solutions Paper Agency problems and its solutions Paper Agency problem and its solutions Introduction Principal-agent relationship occurs when a principal contracts an agent. The principal hires the agent to perform a service for him or to act on his behalf. For example, in a large corporation, shareholders would hire managers to help them to organize the company in dairy business. However, agency problems may arise because Of the conflict interest and asymmetry information between principals and agents, which lead to agency costs. In this essay, would like to use the agency theory introduced by Jensen and Neckline (1976) to analysis that to What extent that agency cost would damage shareholders wealth mastication and what actions shareholders could take to correct it. Agency problems and main causes of First of all, there might to conflicts of interest or different goals between principals and agents, the agent would act as their best self-interest but not principals. Secondly, there is asymmetry information been principals and agents, managers may have more information than principals or they could hide their actions. Thirdly, there is uncertainty in the outcome. The outcome may not just depend on managers effort but also other factors like good luck or high arrests expectation lead to increase in share price. Agency costs Agency cost incurred when the managers do not attempt to maximize fir-n5 value and the cost to monitor manager and constrain their behaviors. Agency cost is the sum of three types of costs, cost of designing the contract, cost of enforcing the contract (monitoring and bonding) and residual loss if contract is not optimal. Solutions of agency problems Monitoring Management compensation Incentive compensation There are two major principal agent model, adverse selection and moral hazard. Adverse selection occurs when one of the parties, usually the agent, has better relevant information prior to the contract. This hidden information will be used opportunistically to optimize the utility gained from entering the contract. In moral hazard the principal is unable to observe the agents actions after signing the contract. This causes the agent not to take the full consequences of his actions and thus he can use this hidden information to act opportunistically and maximize his own profit. In most cases the principal will have to carry the costs of this behavior.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

OPPORTUNITY COSTS Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

OPPORTUNITY COSTS - Coursework Example EXPLAIN THE CONCEPTS OF COMPARATIVE AND ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE The concept of ‘Comparative and Absolute Advantage’ holds primary importance being closely related to profit maximization and increased productivity. It principally indicates the capability of a producer to manufacture products and/or services at a lesser opportunity cost than other producers operating in almost identical conditions. A comparative advantage provides a company the capacity to trade goods, products and services at a lower fee than other players in the market for the purpose of attaining higher sales margins and revenues. In the similar context, the concept of obsolete advantage can be identified when a company produces larger volume of goods than that of its competitors with a given amount of resources. In both these situations, companies are affirmed to obtain advantages over its competitors in terms of cost of production and profit margin (Horsley 1-99). For example, in case the USA and Canada ha ve been producing differing quantities of potatoes and rice in a year [as illustrated in the below table], both the producers will have to incur differing opportunity cost. ... Assessing both these situations, it can be observed that Canada will have a comparative advantage in producing larger volume of potatoes, with the given amount of resources and also by incurring lesser opportunity cost. Thus, Canada should produce potatoes. HOW DOES TRADE AFFECT THE PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES FRONTIER? EXPLAIN Production possibilities frontier, in simple terms, can be referred to as a frontier or a graph indicating the maximum output producing possibilities for a particular producer to manufacture two products at a given point of time. Indicating all possible combinations of the given two products, the production possibilities frontier tends to conclude the possible points at which the producer can manufacture at a greater production level in comparison to the other commodity’s normal production level with the fixed amount of resources (Horsley 1-99). Trade can affect the production possibilities frontier in a positive as well as in a negative manner. For instan ce, if the activities related to trade and commerce increases in a country, the requirement of the resources and production capacity with respect to two given commodities is also quite likely to increase (Horsley 1-99). Precisely, the concept of production possibilities frontier indicates the points at which a producer can make the maximum use of the resources allocated to produce one or more commodities. Notably, the points on the curved line of production possibilities frontier [refer to the diagram below] depicts efficiency of the producer to use the given amount of resources to produce maximum amount of product A and product B. On the contrary, the points below the curved line depict the inefficiency of the producer to make effective use of the resources allocated.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The level of contamination on the things we use on daily basis Lab Report

The level of contamination on the things we use on daily basis - Lab Report Example The following tests were done: For Morphological test; culturing was done. The samples were cultured on MacConkey and r2a plate. These three items were compared to determine the level of contamination. After 24 hours of growth on both MacConkey and r2a plate, small growth was observed in all the samples. Similarly after 48 hours, large colonies were observed on both media for samples brush and Chap Stick but this was relatively higher on the brush. After undertaking Gram staining, it was observed that all the samples on both media had Gram positive bacteria. According to the result findings, the most probable bacteria identified were all cocci, bacilli, and spirilla. Besides, the brush sample seems to have high levels of contamination. These tests have been explored in the next section. Introduction By definition, Cross contamination is the transfer or physical movement of bacteria that are harmful from one place, person or object to another. It is a major factor which contributes to food poisoning, and it consists of 4 common sources that include people, work surfaces, food and equipment. Harmful bacteria live in or can be on our bodies, particularly around or on hands and faces as well as on clothing (McKillip, 2011). Due to the fact that they exist in small numbers they never cause a disease. If it happens that, there is a transfer of these bacteria from the clothes or bodies to food, and then given a chance to multiply, it can lead to food becoming unsafe to be eaten. Bacteria have the ability to multiply and live in any crevices and cracks in equipment including the chopping boards surface cuts. After using the equipment, food bits with bacteria can remain. If there is no proper cleaning of the equipment, there will be transfer of bacteria to another food when it is used next. Surfaces including bench tops might have bacteria on them as a result of contact with people, also dirty equipment, raw foods or other things like cartons stored on the floor can con tribute. If there is no proper cleaning of bench tops, there might be bacterial contamination of any food that is placed on them. The main objective of the study was to ascertain the level of cross-contamination on the thing we use on daily basis to make our faces that include brush, Chap Stick and mascaras. The experiment was conducted to test the amount of bacteria on the cosmetics we use daily. These products go to our face every time. Health is so critical and we need to give it a priority. The hypothesis of the experiment was that the brush had the highest level of contamination followed by Chap Stick then mascaras. Materials and methods Petri dishes Mascaras Brushes Chap sticks Method To begin the experiment there was a collection of the variety of cosmetics that included State brand and type od make up used. The next step was culturing as presented below; Culturing Techniques Incubation was done on agar media at of 37 oc . Streaked specimen using a loop, later flaming and coo ling was done, then streaked at 45o for a second time, this second streak over ­lap ­ped the first one.. There was less growth after 24 hours then after 24 hours a lot of growth was observed on both agar plate that was observed at 37 oc. There were large colonies, white in color, pink colonies, red colonies, circular in form, with margin that was filamentous Procedure for Tube method Five drops of 3% H2O2 was added to a 12 x 75-mm test tube. Small organism amount was collected with a wooden applicator stick from a ‘’well-isolated 18- to 24-hour colony’’ then it was put into the test tube. Care was taken not to pick up any agar. This is particularly crucial if the isolate of the colony was grown on agar that had red blood cells. The tube was Placed against a dark background and formation of immediate

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Infection Control & Work Health and Safety Assignment

Infection Control & Work Health and Safety - Assignment Example Codes of practice provide comprehensive information about sections of acts or regulations. It also gives an outline of actions, activities, responsibilities, responses and technical requirements to conditions and measures to be observed within a work place. Therefore, the WHS regulation and codes of practice support activities of the WHS Act. Similarly, the codes of practice support activities of the WHS regulations. Pertussis is caused by a bacterial microorganism Bordetella pertussis and uses the human body as a reservoir. The bacteria breeds in the respiratory system hence pertussis mostly affects the respiratory tract causing heavy coughing and sneezing to patients. Pertussis spreads through the droplet mode of transmission. It is caused by viral micro-organisms referred to as rotavirus, Norovirus or Astrovirus. The human body is responsible for providing reservoirs for the viruses. The condition’s portal of exit is through the human gastrointestinal tract and leaves the body through faeces. Acute gastroenteritis spreads via vector transmission. Hepatitis B is caused by viral micro-organisms referred to as hepadnavirus. The human body provides a reservoir for the survival of the viruses. Microorganisms that cause Hepatitis B reside in the urinary tract and can be caused by pathogens. This condition spreads through direct contact to people with the virus. For example, transmission can be through sexual intercourse. When conducting clinical therapies, health workers are required to practice set procedures when dealing with spills. It is also necessary to note that spills should be cleaned immediately, and the area disinfected to prevent multiplication of infections. In clinical settings, most spills include body fluids or ought to be treated before disinfection and correct waste disposal techniques applied (WHS Act qtd. in Safe Practices Learning Guide 2012: 21). In managing spills, health workers should observe standard

Friday, November 15, 2019

Evaluation of brand management at Odeon cinema

Evaluation of brand management at Odeon cinema Brand management module has been a crucial part of my masters program, me along with my group members worked really hard in accomplishing this task. All the four group members are really cooperative and every individual contributed considerably in writing the group report. Our group report is all about defining the various branding aspects such as brand image, brand positioning and brand effectiveness. We have chosen three brands which are related to entertainment industry such as Odeon cinemas, Cineworld cinemas and Vue cinema which are well known and most influencing market players in United Kingdom entertainment sector. I would like to thank university management for giving access to international databases such as EMERALD and EBSCO as I have used few journals and articles related to Brand and Branding concepts from these databases. Each individual of the group worked extensively on gathering the information and writing the report without plagiarism. We have taken all necessary st eps in order to avoid plagiarism. I have gathered information related Odeon cinemas and compared with other two cinema brands namely Cineworld and Vue cinemas. I worked extensively on Odeon cinemas website and recent interim report in order to find its rank and market share details. Introduction: Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to define the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. In the present day competitive business scenarios the concept of branding product or services is important and properly built brands lasts long in market. Companies invests huge amount in building brands and maintaining brand image as it plays vital in making businesses successful. Branding helps the organization to gain competitive advantage for their products/services in markets. Odeon cinemas and Branding: Odeon has evolved as a market leader in entertainment industry of United Kingdom and it has been leading the market since decades. Being a prominent market player Odeon is one among the largest cinema chains of UK. Decades experience in entertaining UK audiences made Odeon cinemas to capture more market share and today it is entertaining more people when compared to other entertainment companies such as Cineworld and Vue cinemas. Odeon sells one third of tickets sold in UK which shows that Odeon is the most influencing cinema company in the market. Odeon cinemas was founded by Oscar Deutsch in 1930 which was later acquired by J Arthur Rank 1941 who was fond of film distribution and production. The Rank organizations lead Odeon cinemas for further 58 years. Brand Slogan: Odeon Cinemas Fanatical about Film Brand Image: Brand image is the current view of the customers about a brand. It can be better defined as unique group of associations in target customers mind about a particular brand. It is an impression on companys product/services in customers minds. Brand image can be further reinforced by enhanced brand communication activities such as promotional tools, advertising, publicity through word of mouth and packaging. Brand image promotes the service/products differently from competitors. After extensive re-branding campaign in 1998, Odeon has evolved as strong brand in UK. Re-branding process enhanced the existing brand image of Odeon making it market leader. Odeon with brand slogan Fanatical about film has reached more number of customers than earlier and provided UK audience with outstanding services. Brand position: Brand positioning refers to target consumers reason to buy your brand in preference to others. Brand positioning should take various aspects in to consideration and it is necessary that the brand should be unique and distinctive when compared to competitors. Is the brand suitable to all major geographic markets. Odeon has entered other markets in Europe and successfully running business operations. Odeon has achieved strategic financial goals and has been performing really well at all locations in UK and Europe. Odeon is sustainably growing and updating itself with changing technologies in order to give optimized customer satisfaction. Odeon is well known and occupied position in worlds most influencing cinema chains and it is considered to be largest in Europe. Odeon under Terra group has undergone considerable changes and the Terra group successfully transformed 350 screens in to 3D during the first quarter of the financial year 2010. Brand Effectiveness: More recently the Odeon cinema was acquired by Terra firm which is a private equity firm on September 2004 and also it also acquired United cinema International in October 2004, Now Odeon cinema group is looking ahead to enhance their market share and expecting positive growth which ensures to continue its unique position in cinema industry of United Kingdom. Odeon cinema has been unique in its style and always gave tough competition to other key market players of United Kingdom Cinema industry. Branding Slogans Odeon Cinemas- Fanatical about Film Cineworld Cinemas- Leading the way in digital and 3D cinema Vue Cinemas- The ultimate cinema experience References: Definition of Branding-03, Nov, 2010- http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1hid=109sid=c1be809a-db3a-46fe-b3ff-02e29105dda2%40sessionmgr111 Introduction to Brand management- 03, Nov, 2010- http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1hid=109sid=458837c7-8692-4ec9-b8b7-b5fc274daf69%40sessionmgr112 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/brand-image.html http://www.iabuk.net/richmediaroadshow/media/pdfs/6_Measuringbrand.pdf http://www.screendigest.com/news/vue-cinemas-switches-ads-to-rivals-dcm/view.html http://www.myvue.com/about_ustxt.asp?SessionID= http://www.myvue.com/corporate/index.asp?SessionID=cn=1ci=39ln=1ic=1 http://www.cineworldplc.com/strategy http://www.myvue.com/corporate/news.asp?sb=1SessionID=cn=1ln=1intThisPageStructureID=10809 http://www.managementstudyguide.com/brand-image.htm Cineworld Group plc Interim Report 2010, Definition of Brand positioning, http://www.va-interactive.com/inbusiness/editorial/sales/ibt/branding.html http://www.myvue.com/corporate/vuecompany.asp?sb=1SessionID=cn=1ln=1intThisPageStructureID=111 Paul Marsden, (2002), Brand positioning: memes the word,307-312 Ries, A. and Trout, J. 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